【はじめに】   みなさんは、バイデン大統領の就任演説を聞かれましたか? 12年前のオバマ大統領のときとは、雰囲気の違う就任式でしたね。   ちなみに、 2009年にオバマ大統領が就任されたときに、勝 […]
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『リスニングに効果!バイデン大統領・就任演説の聞き方』

バイデン大統領就任式

【はじめに】

 

みなさんは、バイデン大統領の就任演説を聞かれましたか?

12年前のオバマ大統領のときとは、雰囲気の違う就任式でしたね。

 

ちなみに、

2009年にオバマ大統領が就任されたときに、勝利演説と就任演説の

全文のリンキングが練習できる本を執筆させていただきました。

その中で書きましたが、オバマ大統領は熱がこもってくると、

段落の最初と最後で半音が6つ分、つまりドからソにあがるぐらい、

高い声になっていました。(*1)

 

また、音的な特徴でいうと、対立候補のマケイン上院議員が[s]などの

鋭い摩擦音が、100ワード中、オバマ大統領の3倍の回数あったのに対し、

オバマ大統領は、[m]のつく単語を非常に多く使っていたため、

暖かいイメージがありました。

 

ご参考までに、世界中の基本の食べ物の多くは[m]で始まります。

マナ、マンマ、ミルクなどがそうです。

 

【バイデン大統領のスピーチの特徴】

 

ところで、バイデン大統領は周知の情報として、吃音と向き合う

初の大統領とのことですね。

(*2 BBCニュース 英国閣僚の吃音例も公表)

 

https://www.bbc.com/japanese/video-55628483

 

バイデン大統領の言葉の特徴は、比較的柔らかい音を出されているように

思われました。トランプ大統領が終始唇を尖らせ、舌先に力を込めて、

強い音を出そうとしていたのとは、極めて対照的な印象ですね。

 

今日は、このあと、皆さんにも就任演説を使って、リンキングの練習を

していただくので、そのときにお分かりになると思いますが、

バイデン大統領は、3つ4つの単語をリエゾン(連結)させるときに、

[t]を鼻音化して音を丸めることがあるようですね。

 

【かっこよく聞こえるリンキングの練習をやってみましょう】

 

今日は、皆さんにトライしていただきたい「音読の練習」があります。

簡単にできる「リンキング練習」です。

 

リンキングとは、単語と単語のつなぎ目の音の変化のことで、

結合するリエゾン、消えるエリジオン(ディダクション)などがあります。

プロンテスト・シリーズのアプリの中では色分けをして、

「リエゾン法®」という練習法として取り入れています。

 

①まず、実際の就任演説を聞いていただき、演説文として公表されている文章が、音声と一致しているかどうかをチェックします。

 

最初にBBC版を見ていただきます。(*3 BBC版)

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-55656824

 

 

実は、ホワイトハウスから発表されている英文の方が実際の演説から

書き起こしているようで、BBCの方は直後に入手した原稿か何かなのではと

思われるものです。(*4 ホワイトハウス版)

https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/speeches-remarks/2021/01/20/inaugural-address-by-president-joseph-r-biden-jr/

 

②次に、大統領が言葉を切った場所をチェックします。一回、切れ目に意識して聞いていただくと、2回目以降が楽になります。

 

This/ is America’s day. This/ is democracy’s day.

A day of history and hope, /of renewal and resolve.

 

③そして、今度は同じ文の上に、リエゾン(liaison)した部分と消えた部分(elisionまたはdeduction)を記入していきます。

 

This/ is America’s day. This/ is democracy’s day.

A day of history and hope, /of renewal and resolve.

 

色がついていて下線を引いているところは、音を切らずに読んだところ、

または、連結した音になっているところです。

灰色の部分は、音が弱いか消えているところです。

 

たとえば、in the ~のときですが、日本人の特徴として、

[n]を発音するときに、舌先を上の歯ぐきにつけないで、鼻母音にするクセが

あるので、in the ~のように舌先は[n]で歯茎につけたら、そのまま歯のほうに

スライドして発音します、という意味で、私はこのように記述します。

 

リスニングの力が短時間でつくこと、間違いなしの方法です!

 

皆さんが記入したものが、正確にリエゾン(連結)なのかどうか、は

この際気にしないようにしましょう。

 

バイデン大統領のこの日のスピーチは、どこをどう続けたり、弱く読んでいるのか、

というのを聞き取ろうとすることが大切です。

 

【実際に聞き比べてみましょう】

 

ここからは、BBC版の就任演説の最初の7分間分(英語)です。

まず、実際の音声との違いを聞き取りましょう。

 

(テキストは最初の7分ぐらい)

回答は、この後のホワイトハウス版で

 

Full transcript of Joe Biden’s inauguration speech

 

Chief Justice Roberts, Vice-President Harris,

Speaker Pelosi, Leader Schumer, Leader McConnell,

Vice-President Pence. My distinguished guests,

my fellow Americans.

 

This is America’s day. This is democracy’s day.

A day of history and hope, of renewal and resolve.

Through a crucible for the ages,

America has been tested anew and America has risen

to the challenge.

 

Today we celebrate the triumph not of a candidate

but of a cause,

a cause of democracy.

The people – the will of the people – has been heard,

and the will of the people has been heeded.

 

We’ve learned again that democracy is precious,

democracy is fragile and, at this hour my friends,

democracy has prevailed.

 

So now on this hallowed ground where just a few days ago

violence sought to shake the Capitol’s very foundations,

we come together as one nation under God –

indivisible – to carry out the peaceful transfer of power

as we have for more than two centuries.

 

As we look ahead in our uniquely American way,

restless, bold, optimistic,

and set our sights on a nation we know we can be and must be,

I thank my predecessors of both parties for their presence here.

 

I thank them from the bottom of my heart.

And I know the resilience of our Constitution and the strength,

the strength of our nation, as does President Carter,

who I spoke with last night who cannot be with us today,

but who we salute for his lifetime of service.

 

I’ve just taken a sacred oath each of those patriots have taken.

The oath first sworn by George Washington.

But the American story depends not on any one of us,

not on some of us, but on all of us.

 

On we the people who seek a more perfect union.

This is a great nation, we are good people.

And over the centuries through storm and strife

in peace and in war we’ve come so far. But we still have far to go.

 

We’ll press forward

with speed and urgency for we have much to do

in this winter of peril and significant possibility.

 

Much to do, much to heal, much to restore, much to build

and much to gain.

Few people in our nation’s history have been more challenged or

found a time more challenging or

difficult than the time we’re in now.

 

A once in a century virus

that silently stalks the country has taken as many lives in one year

as in all of World War Two.

 

Millions of jobs have been lost.

Hundreds of thousands of businesses closed.

A cry for racial justice, some 400 years in the making, moves us.

 

The dream of justice for all will be deferred no longer.

A cry for survival comes from the planet itself,

a cry that can’t be any more desperate or any more clear now.

 

The rise of political extremism, white supremacy, domestic terrorism,

that we must confront and we will defeat.

 

To overcome these challenges,

to restore the soul and secure the future of America,

requires so much more than words.

It requires the most elusive of all things in a democracy – unity. Unity.

 

In another January on New Year’s Day in 1863

Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation.

When he put pen to paper the president said, and I quote,

‘if my name ever goes down in history,

it’ll be for this act, and my whole soul is in it’.

 

My whole soul is in it today, on this January day.

My whole soul is in this.

 

Bringing America together, uniting our people, uniting our nation.

And I ask every American to join me in this cause.

 

Uniting to fight the foes we face – anger, resentment and hatred.

Extremism, lawlessness, violence, disease, joblessness, and hopelessness.

With unity we can do great things, important things.

 

We can right wrongs, we can put people to work in good jobs,

we can teach our children in safe schools.

 

We can overcome the deadly virus, we can rebuild work,

we can rebuild the middle class and make work secure,

we can secure racial justice and we can make America once again

the leading force for good in the world.

 

I know speaking of unity can sound to some like a foolish fantasy these days.

I know the forces that divide us are deep and they are real.

 

But I also know they are not new.

 

Our history has been a constant struggle between the American ideal,

that we are all created equal, and the harsh ugly reality

that racism, nativism and fear have torn us apart.

The battle is perennial and victory is never secure.

 

【ホワイトハウス版】

 

次は、ホワイトハウスから公表されているスピーチのテキストです。

 

BBCと異なる部分には青文字で下線を入れていますので、ご確認を。

 

それでは、もう一度、音声を聞いてみてください。

ただし、ホワイトハウス版にも若干の音声との相違がありますので、

聞き取ってみてくださいね。

 

ホワイトハウス版のほうで、実際の音声と異なる部分は加筆修正しています。

 

それから、ところどころに「リエゾン法®」の書き方で

リエゾン部分とディダクション部分を記入しましたので、ほかの部分は

ご自身で埋めていってみてください。

 

同じ文章でも、

 

A day of history and hope, /of renewal and resolve.

 

と言う人もいれば、

 

A day of history and hope, /of renewal and resolve.

 

と読む人もいます。 バイデン大統領はどのように息つぎをし、どのように

リンキングしているのか、聞き取ってくださいね。

 

ホワイトハウス バイデン大統領 就任演説 一部

The United States Capitol

11:52 AM EST

THE PRESIDENT: Chief Justice Roberts, Vice President Harris, Speaker Pelosi, Leader Schumer, Leader McConnell, Vice President Pence, distinguished guests, and my fellow Americans.

This is America’s day.

This is democracy’s day.

A day of history and hope.

Of renewal and resolve.

Through a crucible for the ages America has been tested anew

and America has risen to the challenge.

Today, we celebrate the triumph not of a candidate, but of a cause, the cause of democracy.

The people.

The will of the people has been heard and the will of the people has been heeded.

We have learned again that democracy is precious.

Democracy is fragile.

And at this hour, my friends, democracy has prevailed.

So now, on this hallowed ground where just days ago

violence sought to shake this Capitol’s very foundation,

we come together as one nation, under God, indivisible,

to carry out the peaceful transfer of power as we have for more than two centuries.

We look ahead in our uniquely American way – restless, bold, optimistic –

and set our sights on the nation we know we can be and we must be.

I thank my predecessors of both parties for their presence here.

I thank them from the bottom of my heart.

I You know the resilience of our Constitution and the strength of our nation.

As does President Carter,

who I spoke to last night but who cannot be with us today,

but whom we salute for his lifetime of service.

I have just taken the sacred oath each of these patriots that taken took

an oath first sworn by George Washington.

But the American story depends not on any one of us, not on some of us,

but on all of us.

続きをやってみてください。

On “We the People” who seek a more perfect Union.

This is a great nation and we are a good people.

Over the centuries through storm and strife, in peace and in war,

we have come so far. But we still have far to go.

We will press forward with speed and urgency, for we have much to do

in this winter of peril and significant possibility.

Much to repair.

Much to restore.

Much to heal.

Much to build.

And much to gain.

Few people periods in our nation’s history have been more challenged challenging

or found a time more challenging or difficult than the time one we’re in now.

A once-in-a-century virus silently stalks the country.

It’s taken as many lives in one year as America lost in all of World War II.

Millions of jobs have been lost.

Hundreds of thousands of businesses closed.

A cry for racial justice some 400 years in the making moves us.

The dream of justice for all will be deferred no longer.

A cry for survival comes from the planet itself.

A cry that can’t be any more desperate or any more clear.

And now, a rise in political extremism, white supremacy, domestic terrorism

that we must confront and we will defeat.

To overcome these challenges – to restore the soul and to secure the future of America – requires so much more than words.

It requires that most elusive of things in a democracy:

Unity.

Unity.

In another January in Washington, on New Year’s Day 1863,

Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation.

When he put pen to paper, the President said, and I quote,

“If my name ever goes down into history it will be for this act

and my whole soul is in it.”

ここからやってみましょう。

My whole soul is in it.

Today, on this January day, my whole soul is in this:

Bringing America together.

Uniting our people.

And uniting our nation.

I ask every American to join me in this cause.

Uniting to fight the common foes we face:

Anger, resentment, hatred.

Extremism, lawlessness, violence.

Disease, joblessness, hopelessness.

With unity we can do great things. Important things.

We can right wrongs.

We can put people to work in good jobs.

We can teach our children in safe schools.

We can overcome this deadly virus.

We can reward work, rebuild the middle class, and make

health care secure for all.

We can deliver racial justice.

We can make America, once again, the leading force for good in the world.

I know speaking of unity can sound to some like a foolish fantasy, these days.

I know the forces that divide us are deep and they are real.

But I also know they are not new.

Our history has been a constant struggle

between the American ideal

that we are all created equal and the harsh, ugly reality

that racism, nativism, fear, and demonization have long torn us apart.

The battle is perennial.

Victory is never assured.

いかがでしたか?

もしお時間があれば、全文にトライしてみてはいかがでしょうか。

 

そして、このあとの仕上げをしてみましょう。

 

  • リエゾン法®で記入した文を自分で音読してみましょう。
  • 文の最初から読まずに、前置詞のあとの「句」や「節」、つまり意味の切れ目と思われるところで切って音読すると、日本語に訳さなくても、なんとなくイメージできます。
  • 一つ一つの発音にも気を付けて読めるようになったら、最後の最後にシャドーイングをしても大丈夫です。

 

この練習の繰り返しで、リスニングもぐっと楽になりますよ!

毎日少しずつ、頑張ってくださいね。

*1「オバマネ」 (ディスカバー21)奥村眞知 著

https://www.google.com/search?q=%E3%82%AA%E3%83%90%E3%83%9E%E3%83%8D&rlz=1C1QABZ_jaJP897JP897&oq=&aqs=chrome.0.69i59i450l6.1602086587j0j15&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

*2 BBCニュース

https://www.bbc.com/japanese/video-55628483

*3 バイデン大統領 就任演説 BBC版

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-55656824

*4 バイデン大統領 就任演説 ホワイトハウス版

https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/speeches-remarks/2021/01/20/inaugural-address-by-president-joseph-r-biden-jr/